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Going Ashore: Naval Operations in Casco Bay During World War II (Part I)

Casco Bay Banner

By George Stewart

(This is the first of a series of blog posts that discuss the role that Casco Bay played during the Second World War. This is Part I of the series. “Going Ashore” are the collected posts from George Stewart, retired Navy Captain and NHF blog volunteer).

This series of blog posts will provide an overall picture of the naval events that occurred in Casco Bay, Maine, during World War II. It is a scaled down version of presentations that were given at historical museums in the Portland, Maine, area in 2006 and 2009.

Casco Bay is an inlet off the Southern Coast of Maine. It includes the cities of Portland, South Portland, Cape Elizabeth, and a large number of islands, several of which are only accessible by ferry. During World War II, it served as a major naval base in the North Atlantic. It also contained shipyards specializing in the construction of Liberty Ships. My connections to the bay included annual summer visits to my grandparents on Peaks Island, the most heavily populated island in the bay, where my grandfather worked as a lobsterman. A map of the area during the war showing the basic geography and the major coastal defense facilities follows. Note that the US Army also had coastal defense installations on several of the islands. Battery Steele on Peaks Island included a pair of 16” battleship style guns pointing to seaward.


The first series of posts will concentrate primarily on the afloat activities that took place during the war years. The events in Casco Bay formed an integral part of the Battle of the Atlantic.

All access to the bay from the ocean was by way of gates through anti-submarine nets. The bay was also protected by magnetic loops and hydrophones capable of detecting submarines and by buoyant mine fields, as shown in the above map.

Net Maintenance

Net Maintenance

Net Tender USS Elder (AN 20)

Net Tender USS Elder (AN 20)





The basic subjects that these posts cover include:

  1. Why was the naval base established?
  2. What were the base functions?
  3. What ships visited the bay?
  4. Why the base was disestablished after the war?

To summarize the role that Casco Bay played during the war, it is necessary to look at the overall events that occurred between 1939 and 1945. The naval war in the Atlantic can be summed up into three phases. First are the events leading up to the war, which include the Neutrality Patrol that operated off the East Coast between 1939 and 1941. Second is the Battle of the Atlantic, which was primarily a war against the U-Boats. Finally, the U.S. Navy provided support for the invasions in North Africa, Northern Europe, and the Mediterranean.

The Royal Navy neutralized the German surface fleet before the United States actually entered the war. The Pacific Theater, by comparison, involved an opponent with credible air, surface, and submarine forces.  It also encompassed a much wider area and lacked advance bases. Therefore, war in the Pacific was fought primarily by fast carrier task forces. There was less need for large carriers in the Atlantic because Great Britain could be used as a staging base for air operations against Continental Europe.

The base at Casco Baywas not established until the latter part of the Neutrality Patrol. However, it would play a major role in winning the Battle of the Atlantic. Casco Bay continued to provide ships for support of the invasions of Europe and operations in the Pacific right up until the end of hostilities on “V-J-Day.” The major functions of the naval base can be summarized as follows:

  • Shakedown training for newly commissioned ships built in East Coast yards.
  • Refresher training for ships that underwent extensive shipyard periods.
  • Specialized anti-submarine warfare (ASW) training, using submarines that were readily available from New London, Connecticut.
  • Repair and upkeep services provided by Destroyer Tenders.
  • Re-supply, including refueling at the Long Island Fuel Annex.
  • Providing destroyers and destroyer escorts to the operational task group commanders for services as convoy escorts, anti-submarine patrols, and as members of hunter-killer groups.
  • Local harbor defense.

The year 1939 was marked by events that would eventually lead up to World War II. The most noteworthy naval events in the Atlantic were associated with the declaration of war between Britain and Germany and the operations of German commerce raiders. In the United States, the Neutrality Patrol was established. But at the beginning of 1939, the bulk of U.S. naval strength was in the Pacific. The Navy was ill equipped to handle the events that would transpire in the Atlantic over the upcoming years. At that time, world events previously had little or no impact upon Casco Bay. That would change.

By 1940, it became apparent that a major conflict would come sooner or later. While the U.S. remained neutral, it was actively providing assistance to Great Britain in the form of the “Destroyers for Bases” Lend-Lease agreement. The success of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany made it apparent that the North Atlantic became a major battleground. Steps were being taken to increase naval strength in that area. At the time, the need became apparent for more naval facilities in the northeast. This would end up with the establishment of new bases at Argentia, Newfoundland, and Casco Bay in 1941. Another event that would significantly impact on Casco Bay during the war was the establishment of the East Yard in South Portland by Todd-Bath Corporation. The original purpose of the yard was to build thirty “Ocean Class” freighters for the British. The basic scenario of the Battle of the Atlantic is shown in the following illustration:


In order to fulfill its new responsibilities in the North Atlantic, it was necessary to establish an inner and outer North Atlantic bases. The only existing naval base in the Northeastern United States with sufficient space was in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. However, it was too far from the convoy routes. Casco Bay offered plenty of space, protected anchorages, and nearby convoy routes. It is located in close proximity to the city of Portland, which offered good logistics and support facilities.  For this reason, it was chosen to fill the role of the inner base. By the end of 1941, the base was established with the Senior Officer Present Afloat (SOPA) Rear Admiral Ferdinand L. Reichmuth, COMDESLANT (Commander Destroyer Force, Atlantic) embarked in the destroyer tender USS Denebola (AD 12) as his flagship.

USS Denebola (AD 12)

USS Denebola (AD 12)

In the process of developing these posts, a database was compiled from various sources. At least 770 U.S. Naval and Coast Guard are on record as having visited the bay during the war years. It may be possible to identify more visitors with further research.

For the outer base, the Navy chose Argentia on Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. Rear Admiral Arthur Bristol, Commander Support Force, established his headquarters there. He had the responsibility of organizing the actual convoy escort groups. COMDESLANT functioned primarily as a Type Commander, which was responsible for providing an adequate number of destroyers and ensuring their readiness for convoy escort and ASW patrol duties. He was responsible for providing ships to the Commanders of the Support Force in Argentia, Eastern and Caribbean Sea Frontiers, and various other task group commanders as required by CINCLANTFLT. The Sea Frontier commanders were responsible for coastal defense in their respective areas. These requirements were frequently in conflict at the beginning of the war. Rear Admiral Bristol was also responsible for training and readiness of East Coast built destroyers that were scheduled for immediate transfer to the Pacific Fleet.

The database includes records of 56 ships that visited Casco Bay during 1941. The list includes two aircraft carriers, USS Yorktown (CV5) and USS Wasp (CV 7), and four battleships, USS New Mexico (BB 40), USS North Carolina (BB 55), USS Texas (BB55), and USS Arkansas (BB 33). 

Another noteworthy event that occurred during the year was the ground breaking for the Todd-Bath Shipbuilding Corp. West Yard in South Portland. Between 1941 and 1945 as the New England Shipbuilding Company the East and West Yards would employ more than 30,000 people and build 266 Liberty Ships.

George W. Stewart is a retired US Navy Captain. He is a 1956 graduate of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy. During his 30 year naval career, he held two ship commands and served a total of 8 years on naval material inspection boards, during which he conducted trials and inspections aboard over 200 naval vessels. Since his retirement from active naval service in 1986 he has been employed in the ship design industry where he has specialized in the development of concept designs of propulsion and powering systems, some of which have entered active service. He currently holds the title of Chief Marine Engineer at Marine Design Dynamics.

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  1. dr donald g. kennedy

    Captain Stewart has a clear presentation that draws in the reader. Hope you’ll run several phases of his descriptions of Casco Bay in WWII, an otherwise forgotten story of the defense of North America. His other blogs of parts of his US Navy career are well-done as well. Kudos for making your website so interesting. Keep up the blogs.

  2. Judith Balsanek

    Dear Foundation Member Recruiter,
    Today I rec’d an envelope from you addressed to Lou Balsanek, 2341 Pine Valley Dr., New Bern, NC 28562 with a plastic card in it.
    There is NO Lou Balsanek at this address.
    Also I continue to get telephone calls from your Foundation practically on a daily basis which I do not pick up.
    Please be aware that I am NOT interested in further communication from your Foundation.
    I made a ONE time contribution several years ago in honor of a family member who died. This family member was in the Navy during WWII. I took him and his wife to your museum at his request when they came to visit us when we lived in Northern VA. He enjoyed your Museum. In his honor I gave a donation. I have no further interest in your Museum or your Foundation.
    Please remove me from any and all of your mailing and phone lists.
    Thanks very much.

    Judith A. Balsanek (a.k.a. Judy Balsanek or in your records “Lou” Balsanek
    1241 Pine Valley Dr.
    New Bern, NC 28562


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  6. Don Connolly

    The series of articles/blogs by Capt. Stewart are great. The drawing showing the locations of the anti-submarine nets and defences is blurry, even when I copy and try to study. Is there a way to get a clear version of this drawing? Is it available elsewhere?

    Thank you

    • George Stewart

      The maps of Casco Bay in both presentations have been updated to make them more clearly readable.


  7. Steven Dulac

    My grandfather laid mines in Casco bay before or when we got involved in WWII.
    Is there any information available on personnel, and/or ships participating in local defense during the war?

    • George W. Stewart

      I have a data base with over 800 ships that visited or served in the bay during WW II. If you give me an E-Mail address I will send it to you..


  8. peter p joyce

    Interested in dates that USS NORTH CAROLINA visited Casco Bay…
    when was it in Casco Bay and where did it anchor??

    I am presently in Wilmington,nc where the “SHOWBOAT” is a floating museum! I am volunteering as an interpreter/teacher etc… Story is North Carolina officers had lobster traps out while stationed in the bay! Also have a personal reason…family has owned a cottages on PEAKS ISLAND from 1950’s!!

    • George W. Stewart

      USS North Carolina (BB 55) was on the list of ships present in Casco Bay on 7 December, 1941. It was there for repairs. See the website NAVSOURCE for more details.
      I was up on Peaks Island in August along with my family. We rented a cottage for a week.

    • George W. Stewart

      More Information
      The navy maintained a system of anchorages and mooring buoys in Casco Bay on the landward side of Long and Chebeague Islands during the war. You can see where they were located from the Evergreen end of Island Avenue on Peaks Island when looking down the bay. The navy ships normally entered and departed the bay through Hussey Sound between Peaks and Long Island where they had to pass through a submarine net which could be opened and closed. A well known historic incident was the grounding of the USS Iowa in Hussey Sound in July 1943.

  9. George W. Stewart

    A surprise. More information concerning North Carolina’s presence in Casco Bay in early 1942 can be obtained from a site entitled “US Navy Cruise Books”.The ship went through extensive gunnery training over a 5 month period in early 1942. This was considered necessary because North Carolina was the first capital ship built in 18 years and it was necessary to work the bugs out of the system. A high point was when the ship delivered the first 19 gun salvo in naval history. The ship finally left Casco Bay on 28 May 1942 and was then transferred to the Pacific Fleet. A photo of the salvo can be seen on the Cruise Book website.

  10. Margot Carpenter

    I am interested in the source info for the map titled “World War Two Map, Underwater Defenses”. Did you create the map, or, do you know who did?

  11. Paul Fishback

    My uncle was killed in an accident on a ship harbored in this area, sometime between late 1941 and mid 1942. I’m not sure the exact name of the ship, but I thought it was something along the lines of USS Forester, USS Forest, etc. Is there any record of a ship with a similar name (starting with “F”) anchored in that harbor during this time period.

    • George W. Stewart

      The answer is yes. The USS Forrest (DD 461) is on record as having been in Casco Bay in 1943. More details can be found on the DANFS Website.

    • Mr Paul Fishback:
      I have compiled a list of the USS Forrest’s (DD-461) crew and from the Muster Roll data of May 1942, Ensign Edward Everett Landers Jr. was taken off ship on/about 11May1942 and transferred to a hospital ship; the USS Relief AH1. Also transferred was Lt j.g. Clarence W. Becker-perhaps he was also injured in the same accident? I do not have the USS Relief’s Deck Log from that month which could explain the circumstances of how or why he came aboard. Neither ship’s records indicate if Ensign Landers died aboard the Forrest or later aboard the Relief.
      Do you have any information regarding the nature of his injuries and/or the nature of the accident? Thank you.
      V/r JS [email protected] (My grandfather served aboard the USS Forrest from May1942 to Oct1945.)

  12. Pam Owens

    I recently learned my father who was in the Navy was stationed at Casco Bay. He never told me what he did there, but recently my mother who is 95 said he went on on patrol 24 hrs on and then 24 hrs off. I am not sure if he was on a destroyer or escort? There is a new book out “The Hunt for the Last U-Boat.” My father was there in March of 1944. My mother and myself as an infant were also there (somewhere). I was there later as I was born January 1944. I do not know which Island? I have photos of the area. Pam Owens

    • Linda Nickerson

      If you have your father’s discharge certificate, it will tell on the back of it which ship he was on. I’m only finding this out now about my dad who was there from 8/1944-8/1946. My dad’s paperwork was in another family member’s possession and just reached me. Very interesting. You can google the name of the ship and see what type of ship it was. My dad was on USS Farquhar (DE 139) which means Destroyer Escort. Good luck.

  13. Pingback: The George Stewart I Knew | Naval Historical Foundation

  14. Steve

    HI Pam and local historian and tour guide Casco Bay.

    I am currently writing a book of the military installations of Casco Bay.

    Nay photos you would allow me to use I would appreciate.

    Thanks Steve Lyons

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